Most of the actual independent publications (94 out of 154 reviewed) have an index from 0.67 to 1.

Most of the actual independent publications (94 out of 154 reviewed) have an index from 0.67 to 1.

In 1999, the magazine “ESTA (energy-saving technologies and automation)” was founded in Kyiv in Russian and Ukrainian. It is supported by the State Committee of Ukraine for Energy Conservation and the Committee on Industrial Policy of Ukraine. The articles are of an applied nature and contribute to practical measures for environmental protection.

In 1999, the first issue of the bulletin “Quality Systems and Environmental Management” was published.

The bulletin provides information on the latest legislative acts and regulations adopted by state institutions of Ukraine, the Russian Federation (President, Government, State Committee for Environmental Protection, State Committee for Standardization and Certification), executive bodies of the European Community (Council of Europe , European Commission). in the field of environmental management, in particular in the areas of environmental management systems, air, water and soil conditions, environmental labeling.

The bulletin also covers recent publications on selected topics by official international and European organizations (International Organization for Standardization ISO, European Committee for Standardization CEN, European Environment Agency EEA, European Environment Agency EEB, European Organization for Co-operation in Accreditation EA, the European Environment Partnership EPE, the STI Climate Technology Initiative, the European Commission’s directorates of management and others), national institutes for standardization and certification and the media of Ukraine.

In May 1999, the magazine “Transition IV. Ukrainian Choice in the Age of Planetary Crisis” was presented. According to the editor-in-chief Igor Kaganets, this publication can also be considered ecological, as the problems of survival and preservation of the environment occupy a significant place here.

An interesting feature is the appearance of various publications that do not meet the characteristics of the classical press, but also have an impact on the public. A popular series of brochures “Stories about water” was intended for a wide range of readers. It was published by the Committee for the Rescue of the Dnieper and Small Rivers of Ukraine with a circulation of 5,000 copies. The educational series “Ecology and Health” with the support of the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was published during 2000 and 2001 by the public organization “Ecology. Woman. World”. The series includes brochures on the following topics: “Nitro compounds and their predecessors” “Radon” “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons” “Electromagnetic fields (60 Hz)” “Mineral fibers” “Solar radiation” and more.

According to the author and activist of the “green” movement Olena Chaika, in Ukraine there were about 25 national publications on environmental issues, 15 scientific specialized publications, about 40 bulletins, newsletters and other units of local periodicals. Unfortunately, not all of them are able to withstand difficult market conditions. That is why some of them quickly cease to exist or significantly reduce circulation and frequency.

But in such circumstances, not all existing environmental publications can then be attributed to the media. According to G. Pocheptsov, a Ukrainian communication theorist, there is the following classification according to the number of interlocutors:

1 – internal communication, when a person talks to himself alone; 2 – interpersonal communication; 35 – communication in small groups; 2030 and more – public communication. For example, a speech in front of an audience. There is already a functional division: active speaker and passive audience; 100 and more – organizational communication. When people work in one organization, they are connected by many communication situations, which in general shape the climate of the company, plant and so on. Here is a hierarchical communication: from higher to lower. There may be a difference between formal (ie appointed) and actual leaders. 1000 and more – mass communication, which includes newspapers, magazines, television, radio.

The growing importance of the eco-press in particular and environmental journalism in general depends on the constant access to a wider audience. First of all, new means of communication of ecological nature must have a mass character, otherwise their efficiency will be insufficient.

In addition to financial problems, environmental publications have difficulties in using linguistic and stylistic means. Unfortunately, some environmental publications do not always justifiably publish materials in Russian. For example, with the advent of a new editor-in-chief a few years ago, Ridna Priroda magazine published articles without translation, although the publication was always originally in Ukrainian. A fairly common practice of environmental publications is to abandon the literary editor, and sometimes the proofreader. This leads to numerous mistakes and is, as Professor OD Ponomarev notes, a fairly common situation in the modern Ukrainian press.

Along with printed publications, electronic bulletins based on computer means of communication are becoming increasingly important and popular in environmental organizations in Ukraine. Their users receive much more information than from the press. A significant advantage of information networks is the efficiency of information dissemination. In fact, within a few hours it can come to Ukraine from another continent. In many cases, this is almost the only possible means of communication to support environmental actions and help activists in other situations. In addition, computer memory allows you to store large amounts of information and use them quickly if necessary, which significantly expands the possibilities of creating a journalistic dossier.

The computer network “EnviNet Ukraine” was created specifically for environmental non-governmental organizations, as well as other users interested in obtaining information about environmental movements around the world. It existed in the mid-1990s. Various information of a similar nature is contained in other networks. However, it is worth mentioning one difficulty that limits access to these networks? this is the lack of computers, especially for regional, environmental activists and journalists, and the modems needed to communicate. Nevertheless, electronic means of communication are already in serious competition with the print media.

To overcome it and organize the interaction between the various media, it is necessary to constantly monitor the audience, which is the recipient of environmental and environmental information. Its distributors must take into account the specifics and needs of each group.

For example, the author a study of potential recipients of ornithological information, motivations that can interest specific recipients in the protection and conducted involvement of birds, as well as the needs of different categories of consumers in narrowly focused information. Even in the area of ​​clearly limited information, there is a diversity of interests. With the release of a larger amount of material, it increases. Therefore, now the moment of finding, choosing and approving specific publications in one’s own ecological niche is important for the successful development of the eco-press. Examples of such practices are scientific publications. With a small circulation, they retain a constant readership, which is one of the criteria for the stability of the publication. This approach contributes to the survival of the eco-press in the future.

Researchers of the eco-press, members of the Russian environmental movement, wanting to assess the effectiveness of eco-publications in Eurasia, introduced the so-called “periodicity index”. This is the ratio of the actual periodicity to that stated by the editors. Most independent publications (94 out of 154 reviewed) have an index from 0.67 to 1. Another 28 are rated from 0 to 0.66. For 32, the index could not be determined. From this we can conclude that a certain part of the publications has a much lower frequency than planned. This state of affairs is caused, first of all, by the economic situation of publications, insufficient amount of material for publication or other good reasons.

The largest number of publications appeared in 1990, due to democratic changes in society, and in 1994-95, which was primarily due to the financial support of international organizations. However, half of the publications that ceased to be published lasted no more than a year and a half (usually only at the expense of the money provided).

The next surge, which began in the second half of 1994, continues today. Modern publishers are characterized by great pragmatism and caution. Nobody plays with color and thick magazines anymore, the editions that are published are closer to the forms of classic samizdat, losing as a design, but winning at the expense of cost and independence from printing capacity.

Virtually every environmental group, including children’s or school, having managed to obtain copying equipment, begins to produce its own printed bulletin, and having mastered the computer and e-mail – an electronic bulletin. Sometimes this gives preference to access to information to a limited number of users of electronic information exchange. The trend of many environmental activists to move from environmental to publishing and information activities is a matter of concern.

The strong focus of most publications is not on a wide range of readers, but on internal use or Western readers (a special type, of course, a reader with a large bank account).

A similar picture can be observed in official ecologically oriented publications. Each government now publishes its own environmental publication. There are several such projects in almost every region.

The newspaper “Gazeta v Gazeta” began to appear first of all in 1992-1993, which is connected with the strengthening of local self-government bodies and the reorganization of state structures of environmental protection.

“Internal” publications, both public and state organizations, are not, with rare exceptions, in any demand, even among environmental activists.

In the event that an ecological catastrophe does not have tangible horizons for everyone, ecological mass media will be unnecessary (truly mass media, of course). People will still prefer general political publications and take the environmental information they need from there.